How to Patch Exterior Stucco Cracks
If your home improvement project involves stucco in Summerlin West, you will want to be sure you find the right contractor for the job. It is always important to hire good contractors, but it is especially important when they will be doing work such as stucco installation, which is not as common as other contracting duties. You need to work with a people who know how do to the job properly, so you can be sure it will get done right the first time.
When you get the bids, make sure to ask if the work will be guaranteed once it is completed. A quality stucco contractor will stand firmly behind their work, so don’t hesitate to ask this question. If the labor and material are not covered by some form of guarantee, you should quickly move on to the next bid. There are plenty of contractors out there who are willing to stand behind their work, so there is no reason to work with one who isn’t.
Stucco can be messy business. Make sure there is a plan in place to protect the rest of your property from the mess that can be made when stucco is put in. You don’t want to be left with a huge cleanup project after your contractor has left the job site, so ask specific questions as to how they will keep the rest of your property as clean as possible.
Hiring a stucco contractor doesn’t need to be a long and drawn out process, as long as you know what you are looking for from the start. Use the points above to guide your search, and only hire a contractor once you are fully satisfied that they are the perfect selection for the work that you need completed.
Aside from roofing failure, the most common source of moisture entering residential community properties is failure of the siding material. In southern California, most siding consists of stucco. Unfortunately, stucco siding systems leak!
Why do builders specify stucco so often?
Stucco became popular in the United States in the early 1800's as an inexpensive and effective means of exterior wall covering over concrete, brick or stone. Today most stucco involves a less expensive method of application; instead of brick or stone, it is applied over open frame construction. "Open frame" means that paper and lathe reinforcement resembling chicken wire is laid over wood-framed walls without sheathing, and then coated with three applications of plaster. This is a low-cost technique, but it has pitfalls.
When you look at a stucco wall, all you see is plaster. The plaster does not keep your home dry; it just protects the waterproofing paper. Yes, paper. In 90 percent of the exterior wall area, all that is keeping your unit dry is paper that is thinner than a business card. Because stucco acts like a sponge, water gains access to the protective paper flashing and will leak into your wall cavity at any tear, backward lap or voided area of the paper.
Almost all stucco leaks can be traced to application error. Errors occur when paper, flashing, windows and other components do not properly overlap (flash) the items directly below them. Leaking will also occur from paper and flashing degradation due to age or excessive moisture entering. Remember, most stucco leaks do not show up on the interior of your unit; the 6-inch space between the stucco and your interior drywall - consisting of fiberglass insulation and wood framing - can hold a lot of water before it shows on the interior. When this occurs, you can expect mold, dry rot and termites to follow.
Leaking within stucco walls usually originates from one of the following sources:
Window leaks in stucco walls are among the most common flashing failures within the entire building structure. These leaks occur from two basic sources: failure of the window frame mechanism itself or improper lapping of the stucco's protective paper system onto the window flanges. Repair commonly requires rehabilitation of the window frame or removal of stucco surrounding the window to correctly apply the paper flashing system.
Miscellaneous wall penetrations
Vents, hose bibs, electrical outlets and light fixtures in stucco walls create a flashing problem during construction. Most of these do not have adequate flanges to overlap the paper flashing properly and were not properly sealed during construction.
Fascia and trim wood
In the past, a common mistake made by builders was to terminate the paper protective system at the point of the fascia board (trim wood) located under the roofline. As the wood ages, it shrinks and splits, allowing moisture to go behind the wood and into the wall.
Wall base leaking
Since stucco acts like a sponge and holds water, it needs to have a "release" flashing at the bottom of the wall, commonly called "weep screed." Most multi-unit complexes constructed prior to 1970 did not have weep screed installed. In many of these structures, trapped water is channeled into the bottom plate of the wall.
Even when weep screed flashing is installed, exterior planter systems are often raised to a level higher than the flashing or the interior floor line. When this occurs, water is forced into the wall structure.
Retrofitted flashing installations
Most managed properties have retrofitted doors, windows, fixtures or repairs that were completed after the original construction. When the stucco around these is patched, the new flashing paper is often overlapped incorrectly, or the old, brittle paper is damaged so much that it is impossible to do proper overlapping. As the new plaster settles and cracks due to improper fastening of wire reinforcement, water finds its way through the plaster and paper and into the wall cavity.
Stucco walls often exhibit cracking at windows, doors or open field areas within the wall. While cracking doesn't necessarily indicate failure of the weather-protection system, the increased exposure to rain water and air-borne pollutants cause the paper to prematurely rot and fail thereby allow moisture intrusion.
Methods of Repair
The difference in cost between repair options can be staggering, so it is critical to seek out an expert in diagnosing and designing an effective solution. Here are three repair options to consider, listed from most to least expensive:
Completely rebuilding a 20-foot by 20-foot section of stucco wall with new flashing may cost between $10,000 and $23,000. Fortunately, this type of repair is seldom necessary. My own company completely rebuilds exterior walls less than 1 percent of the time when addressing stucco failure.
Perhaps the most common type of stucco repair involves removing sections of stucco around windows or flashing transition areas, then applying new flashing, wire reinforcement and plaster. This technique requires meticulous and intensive labor during the demolition and reapplication process. It should include using bituthene pliable membrane at all corners, horizontal surfaces and flashing transition areas. The cost to rebuild three or four flashing transition areas within the same 20-foot by 20-foot section of stucco may cost between $3,000 and $12,000 depending upon the quality of the repair. Doing the job right takes time, which is why this method has the highest failure rate of the three options. In a poorly done rebuild, the new paper flashing is not entirely lapped under the salvage edge of the old paper, and often the lathe wire reinforcement is compromised.
Even when failing sections of stucco and flashing are replaced, the walls can leak due to aging of the surrounding areas of stucco where the paper flashing system is disintegrating. A successful solution is to inject all window, door and miscellaneous flashing penetrations with pliable, durable urethane rubber. The entire wall is then coated from base to roof using an elastomeric coating system such as Thorolastic. Elastomeric coatings waterproof the exterior of the wall and therefore eliminate the necessity to remedy the worn paper flashing system. Repairing a 20-foot by 20-foot section of wall using urethane injection and elastomeric coating may cost between $2,500 and $5,500. When using coatings it is critical that the repair area extends to the roofline so no moisture can become trapped within the stucco. Elastomeric coatings should be reserved only for walls with a history of leaking.
Although troubleshooting leaking stucco walls can be difficult due to the nature of the underlying flashing system, water testing can often provide effective results. Such testing pinpoints failure behind stucco over 95 percent of the time.
Stucco is not going anywhere. You and I will move into our next homes, and chances are they too will be stucco. Fortunately, newer homes are being built with greater care and higher standards. But when leaks do occur, it is important that the method of repair is effective and affordable.
Making The Proper Repair Of Walls And Ceilings Using Stucco
As it happens the next generation of EIFS has learned a lot from the last generation
From 1969 to about the year 2000 was the first generation of EIFS where the EIFS foam was installed directly to the substrate of a house. Where the EIFS exterior itself was the weather barrier. Before the year 2000 building codes did not require a secondary moisture barrier. The IRC (International Residential Code) in 2000 required this secondary moisture barrier on all sidings used over wood framed construction. The problem with the EIFS itself being the water barrier is that when any moisture infiltrated the system there was nowhere for it to escape. A properly installed first generation EIFS application that has been maintained has a very good chance of not having any problems. The EIFS can be done right, and the caulk and sealants maintained over the years, and still a window or roof leak can cause major damage over time on a first generation EIFS home. However, you can still have a first generation EIFS home inspected, and after passing the inspection get a warranty on the home through The Moisture Warranty Corporation.
The Next Generation of EIFS has grown and learned from the past along with the entire building industry. The unprecedented testing done has helped many industries, and has had an impact on the building codes. With the addition of a Air/Water barrier to the EIFS process has made significant improvements to the overall performance of EIFS, and is now mandatory on all wood framed construction whether you are using EIFS or not. The next generation of EIFS has been proven to drain water effectively. This overcomes the major issue with first generation EIFS.
The Next Generation of EIFS is a superior material, and out preformed all other exterior wall claddings (including brick, stucco, concrete block, and cementitous fiber board siding) in the Hygrothermal Performance testing by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which was funded by The US Department of Energy and EIMA. A study by The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) shows that over a 50 year life cycle of a building, the carbon footprint of EIFS is 1770 compared to brick at 8303. We are talking some huge numbers here, as Dryvit, one of the leading manufacturers, boast 'over 2 billion square feet of EIFS applied' you can begin to imagine what a positive impact having such a smaller carbon footprint has had on the environment.
Benefits of The Next Generation of EIFS - Superior Cladding
- Thermal bridging virtually eliminated
- Improved IAQ (Indoor Air Quality)
- Improved overall energy performance of a building
- Helps keep structural members at a consistent temperature, which extends life expectancy
- The constant temperature helps structure member movement and stress from temperature swings that lead to cracking in concrete and stucco walls.
- Dewpoint is eliminated
- Vapor diffusion from condensation is minimized
- Deterioration of batt insulation from condensation is minimized
- Mold growth due to condensation is virtually eliminated
- Rusting of metal fasteners and framing from condensation is minimized
- EIFS has low levels of volatile organic compounds as know as VOC's
- EIFS carbon footprint is 5 times smaller than brick
- EIFS saves money in construction costs
- EIFS is more energy efficient
- ASHRAE (American Association of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-conditioning Engineers) Standard provides minimum requirements for energy efficient design of buildings - EIFS meets these requirements
- According to ASHRAE 90.1 2001 - 2 inches of EIFS offers the equivalent energy efficiency performance of 8 inches of fiberglass insulation in a wall cavity.
- EIFS puts the continuous insulation on the outside of the building where insulation works best.
- EIFS is in the International Building Code and the International Residential Code
- EIFS provides the continuous insulation (CI) described in ASHRAE 90.1, which is required by the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC)
- EIFS can contribute to LEED certification
- EIFS is the only cladding that has an air-barrier, insulation and aesthetics all in one system, which is installed by a single contractor, with a single warranty
- EIFS has a very low Global Warming impact, where brick has a very high Global Warming Impact
It may not be faster than a speeding bullet and it can not leap tall buildings, but The Next Generation of EIFS is a Super Cladding when compared to the other leading Claddings.